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Understanding Legal and Social Norms Characteristics

by Nadia Safitri (2020-01-02)


Definition, Objectives, and Functions of research. Source of knowledge. Scientific & Non-Scientific Methods Definition of research Research or research comes from English research, which means the process of gathering information with the aim of improving, modifying or developing an investigation or group of inquiry. Basically, research is every process that produces knowledge. The understanding of research according to experts is (References from Zambrut): Sutrisno Hadi => Research is an attempt to find, develop and test the truth of a knowledge. Mohammad Ali => Research is a way to understand something through an investigation or an attempt to look for evidence that appears in connection with the problem, which is done very carefully so that the solution is obtained. Tuckman => Research is a systematic attempt to find a scientific answer to a problem (a systematic attempt to provide answer to question). Systematic means following certain procedures or steps. The scientific answer is the formulation of knowledge, generalization, in the form of theories, both abstract and concrete principles formulated through primary tools, namely empirical and analysis. The research itself works on the basis of assumptions, techniques and methods. Fellin, Tripodi & Meyer (1996) => Research is a systematic way for the purpose of increasing, modifying and developing knowledge that can be conveyed (communicated) and tested (verified) by other researchers. Kerlinger (1986: 17-18) => Research is a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of a hypothesized proposition regarding certain relationships between phenomena. Indriantoro & Supomo (1999: 16) => Research is a reflection of the desire to know something in the form of facts or natural phenomena. David H. Penny => Research is systematic thinking about various types of problems whose solutions require the collection and interpretation of facts. J. Suprapto => Research is an investigation of a field of science that is carried out to obtain facts or principles patiently, carefully, and systematically. Hilway (1956) => Research is a method of study through careful and perfect investigation of a problem so that an appropriate solution to the problem is obtained. Woody (1927) => Research is a method for finding truth that is also a critical thinking (critical thinking). Research involves defining and redefining the problem, formulating hypotheses or temporary answers, making conclusions and at least conducting careful testing of all conclusions to determine compatibility with the hypothesis. Parson (1946) => Research is a search for something (inquiry) systematically on the problems that can be solved. Nazir (1988) => Research is a careful and critical experiment to discover something new. Sutrisno Hadi (1987: 3) => Research is an attempt to find, develop, and test the truth of a knowledge, which is carried out by scientific methods. Emzir (2007: 3) => Research is an activity or a systematic process to solve problems carried out by applying scientific methods. Hamidi (2007: 6) => Research is a scientific activity carried out because there are uses to be achieved, both to improve the quality of human life and to develop science. Parson (1946) => Research is a search for something (inquiry) systematically with the emphasis that this search was done on problems that can be solved. John (1949) => Research is the search for facts according to clear objective methods to find relationships between facts and produce propositions or laws. Dewey (1936) => Research is a controlled or directed transformation of a situation that is known in the facts that exist in it and its relationship, such as changing elements from the original situation into an integrated whole. Soerjano Soekanto => Research is a scientific activity related to analysis and construction which is carried out methodologically, systematically and consistently. The Meaning of Word => Research is an activity of collecting, processing, analyzing, and presenting data that is carried out systematically and objectively to solve a problem or test a hypothesis to develop general principles. RI Ministry of Education => Scientific collaboration to develop science, technology and art in order to obtain information / findings / new products through a methodology that is closely related to one or several scientific disciplines Research in essence is an attempt to find, develop, and test the truth of a knowledge using scientific methods. The experts expressed different opinions in formulating the limits of research or investigation of a problem, both as an effort to find the truth through a scientific approach. In general, research is defined as a process of collecting and analyzing data that is carried out systematically and logically to achieve certain goals. Data collection and analysis uses scientific methods, both quantitative and qualitative, experimental or non-experimental, interactive or non-interactive. These methods have been intensively developed, through various trials so that they have standard procedures. Research is an attempt to develop knowledge, develop and test theories. In relation to efforts to develop knowledge, Welberg (1986) suggests five steps for developing knowledge through research, namely: (1) identifying research problems, (2) conducting empirical studies, (3) replicating or repeating, (4) uniting (synthesis) and reviewing, and (5) using and evaluating (McMillan and Schumacher, 2001: 6). Research can also be interpreted as a way and process of discovery through observation or investigation that aims to find answers to problems or problems as a problem under study. Kerlinger (1986) argues, research is a process of discovery that has systematic, controlled, empirical characteristics, and bases on theories and hypotheses or temporary answers. The results of these discoveries, both discovery or invention. The findings of something that already exists with the support of facts is usually called discovery. Sukardi (2005) said, discovery is defined as the findings actually already exist. He gave an example, for example the discovery of the Americas. He further explained that the invention can be interpreted as a discovery of research results that are completely new with the support of facts, for example the results of cloning from animals that have died and declared extinct, then examined to find new species. Research that uses a quantitative approach has a positivist basis and is widely applied in the fields of natural, social, economic, and educational fields. Sukardi (2005) suggests several characteristics of research that have a positivist basis, including the following: a. Emphasizing objectivity universally and not influenced by space and time. b. Interpret existing variables through quantity or number rules. c. Separating researchers from objects to be studied. d. Emphasize the use of statistical methods to find answers to the problems to be examined. Understanding the research suggested by Leedy (1997: 3) as follows: Research (research) is a systematic process that involves gathering and analyzing information (data) in order to improve our understanding of the phenomena that interest us or concern us. Similar to the above understanding, Dane (1990: 4) suggests the following definition: Research is a critical process for asking questions and trying to answer questions about world facts. The correct understanding of research as follows, according to Leedy (1997: 5): Research is a process to achieve (systematically and supported by data) answers to a question, a solution to a problem, or a deep understanding of a phenomenon. The process, which is often referred to as a research methodology, has eight types of characteristics: 1) Research starts with a question or problem. 2) Research requires a clear statement of purpose. 3) The study follows a specific design procedure. 4) Research usually divides the main problems into more manageable sub-problems. 5) Research is directed by specific research problems, questions, or hypotheses. 6) Research accepts certain critical assumptions. 7) Research requires the collection and interpretation of data in an effort to overcome the problems that started the research. 8) Research is, naturally, cyclical; or rather, helical — as shown in the picture below.